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Construftive Anatomy 

• J 

George B. Bridgman 

hiitructoi- in Draiving and Lecturer 

on the Construction and Anatoni\ of the 

Human Figure^ Art Students^ League, 

Nnv y'ork 



P^DWARD C. Bridgman, Publisher 
Pelham, N. Y. 



A 



Ct)pvriglit liv (jforgf B. Bridgman, 
Prlliam, X. V., 1920 




^ '^ 10 

§0 





Dedicated 

to 

<J5fv '•Mother 



The author desires to acknowledge his indebtedness 
to Dr. Ernest K. 'I'ucker for his assistance in the prep- 
aration of the text, and to Mr. A. Wilbur Crane for 

his helpful sugtrcstions. r- n n 

G. B. B. 



Introduction 

The drawings that are presented here show the 
conceptions that have proved simplest and most 
effective in constructing the human figure. 

The eye in drawing must follow a line or a plane 
or a mass. In the process of drawing, this may 
become a moving line, or a moving plane, or a mov- 
ing mass. The line, in actual construction, must 
come first; but as mental construction must precede 
])hysica], so the concept of luass must come llrst, 
that of plane second, that of line last. 

Think in masses, define them in lines. 

Masses of about the same size or proportion are 
conceived not as masses, but as one mass ; those of 
dift'erent proportions, in respect to their movement, 
are conceived as zcah/iiu/ into each other, or as 
morticed or interlocking. 

The effective conception is that of wedging. 



General Anatomy 

Bones constitute the pressure system of the body. 
In them are expressed, therefore, laws of architec- 
ture, as in the dome of the head, the arches of the 
foot, the pillars of the legs, etc. ; and laws of me- 
chanics, such as the hinges of the elbows, the levers 
of the limbs, etc. 

Ligaments constitute the retaining or tension 
system, and express other laws of mechanics. 

Muscles constitute the contractile or power sys- 
tem; they produce action by their contraction or 
shortening. In contraction they are lifted and 
bulged, while in their relaxed state they are dabby 
and soft. Muscles, attached to and acting on the 
bony and ligamentous systems, constitute the motion 
system. In the muscles are expressed, therefore, 
laws of dynamics and of power. 

For instance, for every muscle i)ulling in one 
direction, there must be the corres|)onding muscle 
])ulling in the ojjposite direction. Muscles are there- 
fore paired, throughout the body. Every muscle on 
the right side must be paired with one on the left: 
for every flexor on the front there must be its 
corresj)onding extensor on the back. 

IMuscles ex])ress also laws of leverage; they are 
large in proportion to the length of the lever they 
move. Those of the individual fingers are small and 
can fit in between the bones of the hand. They grow- 
larger as we ascend the arm, the leverage being 
longer and the weight greater. The muscles of the 
forearm are larger than those of the fingers; those 
of the arm larger than those of the forearm, while 
the muscles of the shoulder are larger still. 

[II] 



Masses and Movements 
of the Body 

The masses of the head, chest and pelvis are 
unchanging". 

Whatever their surface form or markings, they 
are as masses to be conceived as blocks. 

The conception of the figure must l)egin with the 
thoueht of these blocks in their relation to each 
other. They are to be thought of first as one thinks 
of the l)ody of a wasp, with only one line connecting 
them, or without reference at all to connecting- 
portions. 

Ideally, in reference to gravitation, these blocks 
would be l)alanced symmetrically over each other. 
But rarely in fact, and in action never, is this the 
case. ]n their relations to each other they are lim- 
ited to the three possible ])lanes of movement. 
That is, they may be bent forward and back in the 
sagittal plane, twisted in the horizontal ])lane, or 
tilted in the transverse plane. Almost invariably, 
in fact, all three movements are present, to differ- 
ent degrees. 

In these various movements, the limit is the limi- 
tation to movement of the spine. The spine is the 
structure that connects one part of the body with 
another. It is a strong column occupying almost the 
centre or axis of the body, of alternating discs of 
bone and very elastic cartilage. Each segment is a 
joint, whose lever extends backward to the long 
groove of the back. Such movement as the spine 
allows the muscles also allow, and are finally con- 
nected bv the wedges or lines of the actual contour. 



'&^ 



f 12 



CONSTRUCTION 

Masses and Movements of the Body- 
Tilting OF THE Masses 



[14] 



CONSTRUCTION 

Tjie Hokizoxtal, Sacittai. and Traxsvekse 

Planes: Tilted and Twlsted 



[16 



The Hand 

Anatomy 

111 the hand are four bones, continuous with those 
of the fingers, called metacarpals (nieta, l^eyond, 
cari)us, wrist). They are covered by tendons on 
the back, and on the front by tendons, the muscles 
of the thumb and little finger, and skin pads. 

There is a very slight movement like opening a 
fan between these bones. They converge on the 
wrist bones and are morticed almost solidly to them. 
The hand moves with the wrist. The dorsal tendons 
converge more sharply than the bones. 

The short muscles of the hand, crossing only one 
joint, the knuckle, and moving the fingers individ- 
uallv, lie dee]) between the metacarpal bones and so 
are called interossei. They are in two sets, back 
and front, or dorsal and palmar. The palmar inter- 
ossei are collectors, drawing the fingers toward the 
middle finger, and so are fastened to the inner side 
of each joint except that of the middle finger itself. 
The dorsal interossei are spreaders, drawing away 
from the centre, and so are fastened to both sides 
of the middle finger and to the outside of the other 
joints. In the thumb and little fingers the muscles 
of this set are called abductors, and being in ex- 
posed positions, are larger. That of the first finger 
forms a prominent bulge between it and the thumb; 
that of the little finger forms a long fleshy mass 
reaching to the wrist. 

Masses 

The masses of the hand are two — one that of the 
hand proper, the other that of the thumb. 

[i81 



The first of these is beveled from knuckles to 
wrist on the edge; from wrist to knuckles on the 
flat side, and from first to little finger from side 
to side. It is slightly arched across the back. 

Somewhat more arched are the knuckles, concen- 
tric around the base of the thumb. The second 
knuckle is larger and higher than the rest; the first 
is lower on its thumb side, where it has an over- 
hang, as has also the knuckle of the little finger, 
due to their exposed positions. 

Belonging to the hand is the pyramidal mass of 
the first segment of the thumb, which joins on at 
an angle, never quite flat with the hand, and bend- 
ing under it to more than a right angle with its 
flat surface. 

The thumb may be drawn in until only its root 
bulges beyond the lateral line of the hand, and may 
be carried out to a great angle with it. In this latter 
position its first segment forms a triangle whose 
base is the side of the hand, equal to it in length; 
whose height is, on the palmar surface, equal to 
the width of the hand, and on the dorsal surface, 
almost as great. 

On the little finger side, the form is given by the 
abductor muscle and the overhang of the knuckle, 
by which the curve of that side is carried well up 
to the middle of the first segment of the finger. 

The pad of the palm overlaps the wrist below and 
the knuckles above, reaching to the middle of the 
first segment of the fingers. 

On the back of the hand, nearly flat except in the 
clenched fist, the tendons of the long extensors are 
superficial, and may be raised sharply under the 
skin. They represent two sets of tendons more or 
less blended, so are double and have connecting 
bands between them. 

[19] 



The Wrist 

Anatomy 

Morticed with tiie hones of the hand are the hones 
of the wrist: the two nial^e one mass, and the hand 
moves with the wrist. 

Eight i)ones (carpal hones) in two rows make 
the arch of the wrist ; in size they are hke deformed 
dice. The two pillars of this arch are seen on the 
jjalniar side, ])rominent under the thuml) and the 
little hnger. The latter is the heel of the hand, hut 
the arch is thicker and a hit higher on the thumb 
side. Under it pass the long flexor tendons to the 
fingers and thumb. 

The dome of the arch is seen on the back, with 
an ai)ex at the trapezium under the first finger. 
It is crossed by the long extensor tendons of the 
fingers, which C(^nverge on its outer half. 

M.VSSKS 

Its width is twice its thickness. It is narrower 
both ways where it joins the arm, giving an ai)pear- 
ance of constriction. 

There is always a step-down from the back of 
the arm, over the wrist, to the hand. 

^loX'K.MKXTS 

L5eing solid with the hand, the wrist moves with 
the hand on the forearm. Its movement is like 
that of a boat in water; easily tipping sideways 
(flexion and extension) with more difificvtlty tilting 
endways ( side-bending) which in combination give 
some rotary movement, but having no twisting 

[2ol 



movement at all. This movement is accomplished by 
the forearm. 

The inset of this boat-shaped joint with the arm 
gives the appearance of constriction. The prow, 
under the thumb, is higher than the stern under the 
little finger. 

When fully extended, the back of the hand with 
the arm makes almost a right angle; when fullv 
flexed, the palmar surface makes almost a right 
angle; the total movement therefore is slightly less 
than two right angles. 

When the wrist is fully flexed, it forms at the 
back a great curve over which the extensor tendons 
are drawn taut, so much so that the fingers can 
never be closed when the wrist is fully flexed. In 
this position the flexor tendons are raised promi- 
nently under the skin. 

When hand and arm lie extended along a flat 
surface, it is the heel of the hand that is in contact, 
the arm bones being lifted from the surface. 

To the four corners of the wrist are fastened 
muscles; two in front (flexor carpi radialis and 
flexor carpi ulnaris ) and two behind (extensor 
carpi radialis and extensor carpi ulnaris. the former 
being double). By their contraction the wrist is 
moved in all directions, except twisting, which 
movement is produced not in the wrist but in the 
forearm. Only the tendons cross the wrist, the 
muscular bodies lying in the forearm. 



[21] 



THE HAND 



[22] 



THE HAND 



[24] 



THE HAND 

Muscles of the Hand, front palmar 

1 Abductor pollicis. 

2 Flexor brevis pollicis. 

3 Abductor transversus pollicis. 

4 Lumbricales. 

5 Annular ligament. 

6 Flexor brevis minimi digiti. 

7 Abductor minimi digiti. 



26] 










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7 













THE HAND 



[28] 



THE HAND 
jNIuscles of Back of Hand: 

1 First dorsal interossei. 

2 Abductor pollicis. 

3 Dorsal interossei. 

4 Tendons of extensor communis 

digitorum. 



[30] 







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r^- 



A 



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THE HAND 

\\^EIJGING OF THE \\'kIST : TiTUMP. SiDE 



[32] 




^&^- 



THE HAND 
Wedging of the Wrist: Little Finger Side 



34 



THE HAND 

Construction 

In the hand as in the figure there is an action and 
an inaction side. The side with the greatest angle 
is the action side, the opposite is the inaction or 
straight side. 

With the hand turned down (prone) and drawn 
toward the hody, the thumb side is the action side, 
the little finger the inaction side. The inaction side 
is straight with the arm, while the thumb is almost 
at right angles with it. 

The inaction construction line runs straight down 
the arm to the base of the little finger. The action 
construction line runs down the arm to the base of 
the thumb at the wrist, from there out to the middle 
joint, at the widest part of the hand: thence to the 
knuckle of the first finger, then to that of the second 
finger, and then joins the inaction line at the little 
finger. 

With the hand still prone, but drawn from the 
body, the thumb side is the inaction side, and is 
straight with the arm, while the little finger is at 
almost right angles with it. The inaction construc- 
tion line now runs straight to the middle joint of 
the thumb, while the action line runs to the wrist 
on the little finger side, thence to the first joint, 
etc., etc. 

These construction lines, six in number, are the 
same with the ])alm turned up, according as it is 
drawn in or out. They place the fingers and indi- 
cate the action and proportions of the hand. 



36 



THE HAND 



[38] 



THE HAND 



40 



THE HAND 



[42] 



THE HAND 
Turning of the Masses of Hand and Wrist 



[44] 



THE HAND 

Masses ov Fingers, Hand and Wrist: 

Step-down, Wedging, Interlocking 



46] 



S-^:2^:J) 




■"\f 



THE HAND 

Interlocking of Hand and Wrist: 
Little Finger Side 



[48] 



The Thumb 

Drill master to the fingers, the hand and the 
forearm, is the thumb. 

The fingers, gathered together, form a corona 
around its tip. Spread out, they radiate from a 
common centre at its base; and a line connecting 
their tips forms a curve whose centre is this same 
point. This is true of the rows of joints (knuckles) 
also. 

Bent, in any position, or closed as in clasping, the 
fingers form arches, each one concentric on this 
same basal joint of the thumb. Clenched, each circle 
of knuckles forms an arch with the same common 
centre. 

The mass of the thumb dominates the hand. 

The design and movement of even the forearm 
is to give the freest sweep to the thumb; while, 
through the l)icej)s muscle, its movement is seen to 
begin really at the shoulder. 

Anatomy 

The thumb has three segments and as many 
joints. Its bones are heavier than those of the 
fingers, its joints more rugged. 

Its last segment has a nail and a heavy skin pad. 
The middle segment has only tendons. The basal 
segment is a pyramidal mass of muscle reaching 
to the wrist, the "line of life" of the palm, and the 
base of the first finger. 

The superficial muscles of this mass are a fat one, 
a broad one, and a thin one. The fat muscle hugs 
the bone (opponens), the broad one forms the bulk 
of the pyramid (abductor) and the thin one lies 

[50] 



inside, toward the index finger (flexor brevis). 
Between the thumb and first finger the skin is 
raised into a web, which is i)ulged, especially when 
the thumb is flattened, by the adductor policis 
muscle. 

Masses 

The thumb is pyramidal at the base, narrow in 
the middle, pear-shaped at the end. The ball faces 
to the front more than sideways. It reaches to the 
middle joint of the first finger. 

The last segment bends sharply back, carrying 
the nail. Its skin pad, broad at the base, gives it an 
appearance not unlike a foot, expressing its pres- 
sure-bearing function. 

The middle segment is sciuare with rounded 
edges, smaller than the other two, with a small pad. 

The basal segment is rounded and bulged on all 
sides except where the bone is sui)erficial at the back. 

Movements 

The last joint has about one right angle of move- 
ment, in one plane, and may by pres.sure be twisted 
toward the fingers. 

The heavy middle joint moves less freely, also 
limited to one plane. 

The joint of the base is a saddle joint, with 
movement like one in a saddle, that is, with easy 
bending sideways, less easy forward and back; 
which two in combination give some rotary move- 
ment, but giving a twisting movement only with 
difticultv and strain. 



[51] 



THE THUMB 

Extensors of the Thumb: 

1 Extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis. 

2 Extensor brevis pollicis. 

3 Extensor longus pollicis. 



[52] 



X.-. >-'- 



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I 



THE THUMB 
Muscles of the Thumb, palmar view: 

1 Flexor brevis pollicis. 

2 Abductor pollicis. 

3 Apponens pollicis. 



[54] 



THE THUMB 



56 



The Fingers 
-*• 

Anatomy 

Each of the four fmg-ers has three bones (pha- 
langes, soldiers). Each phalanx turns on the one 
above, leaving exposed the end of the higher bone. 
There are no muscles below the knuckles ; l)ut the 
fingers are traversed by tendons on the I)ack, and 
are covered on the front by tendons and skin pads. 

The middle finger is the longest and largest, be- 
cause in the clasped hand it is opposite the thumb 
and with it bears the chief burden. The little fineer 
is the smallest and shortest and most freely mov- 
able for the oi)posite reason. It may move farther 
back than the other fingers, and is usually held so. 
for two reasons; one is that the hand often "sits" 
on the base of the little finger : the other is that being 
diagonally opposite the thumb it is twisted farther 
backward in any outward tw'isting movement, and 
so tends to assume that position. 

Masses 

All bones of the body are narrower in the shaft 
than at either end, especially those of the fingers. 
The joints are square, the shafts smaller but square, 
with rounded edges; the tips are triangular. The 
middle joint of each finger is the largest. 

In the clenched fist it is the end of the bone of the 
hand (metacarpal) that is exposed to make the 
knuckle. The finger bone (first phalanx) moves 
around it, and bulges beyond. The extensor tendon 
makes a ridge on the knuckle and connects it with 
the first phalanx; but on the middle and the last 

[58] 



joints the tendon makes a depression or groove in 
the centre of the joint. 

The masses of these segments are not placed end 
to end, as on a dead centre, either in profile or in 
back view. In the back view, the fingers as a whole 
arch toward the middle finger. 

In the profile view, there is a step-down from 
each segment to the one beyond, bridged by a wedge. 

A series of wedges and squares thus marks the 
backs of the fingers. Into the square of the knuckles 
a blunt wedge is seen to enter from above. From it 
a long tapering wedge arises and enters the square 
of the middle joint, from which a blunt wedge also 
reaches backward. Another tapering wedge arises 
here and moves half way down the segment. The 
whole finger tapers from the middle joint, to be- 
come embedded in a horseshoe form holding the 
nail. This form begins back of the root of the nail 
and bevels to below its end. at the tip of the finger. 
The whole last segment is a wedge. 

The palmar webbing oi)posite the knuckles, which 
reaches to about the middle of the first segment of 
the finger, in front, bevels backward and points to 
the to]i of the knuckle in the back. 

The segments of individual fingers are of dif- 
ferent lengths, those of the middle finger being 
longest. From tip to base, and on into the bones of 
the hand, the segments increase in length by definite 
proportions. 

Movements 

Each joint moves about one right angle except 
the last, which moves slightly less; and limited to 
one ])lane, except the basal, which has also a slight 
lateral movement, as in spreading the fingers. 

[59] 



FINGERS 

Pad Bkiwken Thumb and First Finger; 
I First dorsal interosseus. 



[60] 



FINGERS 

Mechanism of the First Finger 



[62 



r'~^\ 




FINGERS 
Creases 

While the segments of any finger, seen on the 
back, are of ditTerent lengths, the pads seen on the 
palmar side are of the same length, including the 
l)ad of the base which is part of the palm, so that 
the creases between them are not all opposite the 
joints. The reason is immediateh' seen when the 
finger is viewed closed on itself. The creases are 
then seen to form a cross, the pads to meet in the 
common centre, filling in the four sides of a 
diamond. 

In the first finger the creases are: short of the 
last joint; opposite the middle joint; half way be- 
tween middle and basal joint, and opposite the basal 
knuckle (above the joint proper, which is consider- 
ably beyond the point of the knuckle). 

In the second finger they are: opposite the last 
joint; beyond the middle joint; midwav between 
middle and basal joint, and opposite the basal joint. 

in the other fing-ers they vary in dififerent indi- 
viduals. 

The creases are all transverse except that opi)o- 
site the basal joint, which forms one long wavy 
crease on the ]oalm; and those next beyond, on first 
and little fingers, which slo])e down on the outside, 
in the spread fingers making a curve around the 
base of the thumb. 



[64] 



si 




FINGERS 

1 Dorsal interossei of the hand. 

2 Tendons, finger, dorsal side. 

3 Tendons, finger, palm side. 



[66: 



The Forearm 



Anatomy and Movements 

In the forearm are two bones, lying side by side. 
One is large at the wrist, forming two-thirds of the 
joint; the other is large at the ell)ow, where it also 
forms two-thirds of the joint. They are joined at 
their sides and move like a long piece of cardboard 
folded diagonally. 

The one that is large at the elbow is the ulna. 
It forms a hinge joint and moves in the bending of 
the elbow. The other slides as the hinge moves. 
This second bone is the radius, or turning bone; 
it is large at the wrist and carries the wrist and hand. 

Diagonally op])osite the thumb, on the ulna, is a 
hump of bone which is the pivot for both the radius 
and also the thumb. 

Muscles must lie above the joint they move, so 
that the muscles that bulge the forearm are mainly 
the flexors and extensors of the wrist and hand. 
Overlying them and reaching higher up on the arm 
are the pronators and supinators of the radius. 

The flexors and i)ronators (flexor, to flex or 
bend; pronator, to turn face down, or prone) form 
the inner mass at the elbow, the extensors and 
su])inators form the outer mass. Between them at 
the elbow lies the cubital fossa. 

Both of these masses arise from the condyles of 
the humerus, or arm bone. These are the tips of 
the flattened lower end of that bone. From the 
inner condyle, which is always a landmark, arises 
the flexor-pronator group. This is a fat softly 
bulging mass which tapers to the wrist, but shows 

[681 



superficially the pronator teres (round), whose 
turning function requires it to lie diagonally across 
toward the thumb side. 

The outer condyle is hidden by its muscular mass 
when the hand is turned out. This mass is the 
extensor-supinator group, which bulges higher up, 
and becomes tendinous half way down. It is 
dominated by the supinator longus, which rises 
a third of the way up the arm, widens as far as 
the elbow, tapers beyond, and loses itself half way 
down the forearm. In turning, this wedge follows 
the direction of the thumb, and overlies the condyle 
when the arm is straight with the forearm. 

From the back view, the elbow is seen to ha\'e 
three knobs of bone; the two condyles above re- 
ferred to, and between them the ui)per end of the 
ulna, forming the elbow proi)er, or olecranon. The 
latter is higher when the arm is straight and lower 
when it is Hexed. The overlying muscular masses 
meet over half way down, so that the ulna forms a 
thin dagger of bone ])()inting to the little finger. 

Ma.sses 

The masses of the forearm will be described in 
connection with those of the arm and shoulder. 



The Arm 

Anatomy 

The bone of the upper arm is the humerus. The 
part facing the shoulder is rounded and enlarged 
to form the head, where it joins the shoulder blade. 
The lower end is flattened out sideways to give 



[69 



attachment to the uhia and radius, forming the con- 
dyles. The shaft itself is straight and nearly romid, 
and is entirely covered with muscles except at the 
condyles. 

On the tlat front side of the condyles, reaching 
half way up the arm, is placed the broad, flat and 
short hrachialis anticus muscle; and on top of that 
the thin, high and long biceps, reaching to the 
shoulder; its upper end flattened as it begins to di- 
vide into its two heads. One head passes to the 
inside of the bone and fastens to the coracoid 
process, under the shoulder; the other passes out- 
side, grooving the head of the humerus, and attach- 
ing to the shoulder blade above the shoulder joint, 
under the deltoid or shoulder hood. 

On the back, behind the flat surface made by the 
two condyles, arising from the central knob or 
olecranon, is the triceps (three-headed) muscle. 
Its outer head begins near the condyle, and occu])ies 
the outer and upper part of the back surface of the 
humerus. The inner head begins near the inner 
condyle and occupies the inner and lower ])ortion 
of the bone. The middle head reaches diagonally 
in and u\) to the back of the shoulder blade. These 
all converge on the ])road flat tendon from the 
olecranon, forming a wedge surrounded by two 
wings of muscle. The triceps also is overlaid by the 
deltoid above. 

l^etween biceps and triceps are grooves. The in- 
ner condyle sinks into the inner groove below, and 
it is filled out above by the coraco-brachialis muscle, 
entering the armpit. 

The outer condyle sinks into the outer groove 
below, while midway of the arm the apex of the 
deltoid muscle sinks into it, overlying the upper 
ends of both biceps and triceps. 

[70 I 




Bone of the Arm : 
T Humerus. 

Bones of the Forearm: 

2 Ulna (little finger side). 

3 Radius (thumb side). 



THE ARM 
Bonks of tiik Uppkr Limb: 
Humerus- -arm. 
Radius — forearm, thumb side. 
Ulna — forearm, little tiuL'X'r side. 

Al rsoij;s OF xii i-: L'i'pek Limb, front view 

1 Coraco-braehialis. 

2 ISicejxs, 

3 llrachialis amicus. 

4 l^'onator radii teres. 

5 l<1exors, grouped. 

6 Supinator longus. 



Coraco-brachialis: From coracoid process, to hu- 
merus, inner side, half way down. 
miction: Draws forward, rotates outward, humerus. 

ISiceps: Long- head from glenoid cavity (under 
acromion) through groove in head of humerus; 
short head from coracoid process; to radius. 

.Icfioii: De])resses shoulder blade; flexes forearm; 
rotates radius outward. 



72 



THE ARM 

SUPIXATIOX AND PkOXATION OF THE FoREARJI. 

front view : 

1 Supinator longus. 

2 Pronator radii teres. 

3 Flexors, grouped. 



Supinator Longus: From external condyloid ridge 

to end of radius. 
Action: Supinates forearm. 

Pronator Radii Teres: From internal condyle and 

ulna to radius, outer side, half way down. 
Action: Pronates hand and flexes forearm. 

Flexor group, page <)2 



[74] 



/-/^\ 




THE ARM 

Masses of the Arm. Forearm and Wrist 
Wedcixg axd Interlocking 



[76] 



r^- 




THE ARM 

Muscles of the Arm, lateral view 
( thumb side toward the body) : 

1 Coraco-brachialis. 

2 Biceps. 

3 fjrachialis anticus. 

4 Supinator longus. 

5 Extensor carpi radialis longior. 

6 Pronator radii teres. 

7 Flexors, grouped. 



ISrachialis Anticus: From front of humerus, lower 

half, to ulna. 
Action: Flexes forearm. 

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longior: From external 

condyloid ridge to base of index finger. 
Action: Extends wrist. 



[78 



>■ \ 




THE ARM 

TuRNixt; OF THE Hand on the Forearm 
AND THE Forearm on the Arm 



[80] 



THE ARM 

Muscles of the Upper Lijib. outer view: 

1 Triceps. 

2 Supinator longus. 

3 Extensor carpi radialis long-ior. 

4 Anconeus. 

5 Extensors, grouped. 



Anconeus : From back of external cond\'le to ole- 
cranon ])rocess and shaft of ulna. 
Action: Extends forearm. 



EXTENSOR GROUP 
From Exticrxai. Coxdvi.e of Humerus 

Extensor Digitorum Communis : From external 
condyle to second and third phalanges of all 
fingers. 

miction: Extends fingers. 

Extensor Minimi Digiti : From external condyle to 

second and third ])halanges of little finger. 
Action: Extends little finger. 

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris: From external condyle 

and back of ulna to base of little finger. 
Action: Extends wrist and bends down. 



[82] 



THE ARM 
Muscular Mass of Forearm, back view: 

1 Extensor carpi ulnaris. 

2 Extensor communis disfitormn. 



'&' 



Extensor group, page 82. 



[84] 




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THE ARM 

Wedging of the Arm into the Forearm, 
back view 



[86 



THE ARM 

Wedging of Arm ixto the Forearm 
AT THE Elbow: 

1 Biceps. 

2 Triceps. 

3 Supinator longus. 

4 Flexors. 

5 Extensors. 



[88] 




I'- / / 



THE ARM 



[90] 



THE ARM 

Muscr.ES OF THE Aroi, inner view: 

1 Triceps. 

2 Biceps. 

3 Supinator longns. 

4 Mexors, gTouped. 

5 Pronator teres. 



FLEXOR GROUP 
From 1xtkk\.\l Co.xdvlk of Hiimerus 

Flexor Car])i Radialis : From internal condyle to 

first metacarpal. 
Action: r^lexes wrist and bends up. 

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris : From internal condyle and 
olecranon to fifth metacarpal, base of little 
finger. 

Action: b'lexes wrist and l)ends down. 

Flexor Sublimis Digitorum ( flexor sublimis perfor- 
atus) : From inner condyle, ulna and radius to 
second phalang-es of all fingers; perforated to 
admit i)assage of profundus tendons. 

Action: Flexes fingers and hand. 



[92] 








I ■ 



^ ft 



THE ARM 



[94] 



The Shoulder 



Anatomy 

Form is given to the shoulder by the deltoid 
(triangle) nuiscle. 

An almost perfect triangle is this muscle, its apex 
downward and wedging into the outer groove of 
the arm. its base upward and bent around to attach 
to the shoulder girdle. Just below the base is a 
ripi)le which marks the head of the arm bone. 

The shoulder girdle is made up of the collar bone 
and a ridge of the shoulder blade, meeting. They 
both point outward, the ridge a bit the lower, but 
both turn straight forward before meeting. 

The collar bone is an S-shaped bone, its outer 
curve and tail made by this forward turning. Over 
the point of union is a Hat s])ace. From the hollow 
of this S-curve a groove sinks first downward and 
then at an angle outward, marking the border be- 
tween the shoulder and the great breast muscle. 

P.ehind the inner two-thirds of the collar bone 
is a triangular dc])ression between it and the 
tra])e7.ius muscle behind: its base to the neck, its 
apex jjointing outward. 

Movements 

In the shoulder are found two joints. At the point 
of the shoulder is the joint between shoulder blade 
and collar bone, a Hat hinge ])ointing straight for- 
ward, allowing the shoulder Ijlade to slide freely 
over the flat surface of the back. 

Not only may the shoulder blade slide freely over 

[96] 



the back, but may even lift from it at the point and 
inner edge, sHo-htly amplifying its range. 

l^elow it under the deltoid is the joint of the 
shoulder blade with the humerus or arm bone, the 
shoulder proper, facing sideways and a little for- 
ward. It is a vmiversal joint, with a right angle 
and a half of movement in two planes ; l)ut its sweep 
is always increased by the movement of both 
shoulder blade and collar bone. 

At the jimcture of the collar bone with the 
sternum or breast plate is a universal joint, with 
movement in two planes and also twisting, but with 
very narrow range. Its movements are chiefly lift- 
ing forward and up and twisting forward. Its shape 
expresses an important spring functicMi. it being the 
only bony union of arm and shoulder with the trunk. 

Masses 

The masses of the shoulder, arm, forearm and 
hand do not join directly end to end with each other, 
but overlap and He at various angles. They are 
joined by wedges and wedging movements. 

Constructing these masses first as blocks, we will 
have the mass of the shoulder, or deltoid muscle, 
with its long diameter sloping down and out, beveled 
off at the end; its broad side facing up and out; 
its narrow edge straight forward. 

This mass lies diagonally across and overlaps the 
mass of the arm. whose long diameter is vertical, 
its broad side outward, its narrow edge forward. 

The mass of the forearm begins behind the end 
of the arm and passes across it at an angle forward 
and out. It is made of two squares. The upper 
half of the forearm is a block whose broad side is 
forward, its narrow edge sideways ; while the lower 

[97] 



half, smaller than the upper, has its narrow edge 
forward, its broad side facing out (with the hand 
held thumb up). 

These blocks are joined by wedges and wedging 
movements, and to the straight lines are wedded 
the curved lines of the contour of the muscles. The 
deltoid is itself a wedge, whose apex sinks into the 
outer groove of the arm half way down. The mass 
of the biceps ends in a wedge which turns outward 
as it enters the cubital fossa. 

The mass of the forearm overlaps the end of the 
arm on the outside by a wedge (supinator longus) 
that arises a third of the way up the arm, reaches 
a broad apex at the broadest i)art of the forearm 
and tapers to the wrist, pointing always to the 
thumb; and on the inside by a wedge that rises back 
of the arm and ])oints to the little finger ( flexor- 
pronator nuiscles). 

In the lower half of the forearm, the thin eds'e of 
the mass, toward the thumb, is made by a continua- 
tion of this wedge from the outside: while the thin 
edge toward the little finger is made by the end of 
the wedge from the inside. 

When the elbow is straight and the hand turned 
in, the inner line of the forearm is straight with that 
of the arm. When the hand is turned out, this line 
is set out at an angle that corresponds with the 
width of the wrist. The little finger side (ulna) 
being the hub of its movement. 

The flexor tendons on the front of the forearm 
point always to the inner condyle; the extensor 
tendons on the back point always to the outer 
condyle. 

The breadth of the hand corresponds with that 
of the lower mass ; not joining it directly, but with 
a step-down toward the front. 

[98] 



In the back view of the arm, the mass of the 
shoulder sits across its top as in the front view. 
The back edg'e of this mass is seen to be a trvmcated 
wedge arising under the deltoid and focusing on the 
elbow. The upper end resolves itself into the three 
heads of the triceps ; the lower or truncated end is 
the triceps tendon, to which is to be added the tiny 
wedge of the anconeus (donkey's foot) muscle 
bridging from outer condyle to ulna. 



The Armpit 
-*• 

The hollow of the arm, filled with its friction 
hairs, is made into a deep ])it by the great breast 
muscle (pectoralis major) in front, and the greater 
latissimus dorsi behind. 

Its floor slopes forward, downward and outward, 
following the slope of the chest wall. 

Its rear wall is deeper, since the latissimus attaches 
farther down the back ; thicker because made of two 
muscles (latissimus and teres major), and rounder 
because its fibres turn on themselves before attach- 
ing to the arm bone. 

The front wall is longer because the ])ectoraI 
muscle attaches farther down the arm. 

Into this pit the biceps and tricei)s muscles plunge, 
with the coraco-brachialis between them. 

The bottom of the pit may, when the arm is fully 
raised, be bulged by the head of the arm bone and 
the lym])h glands that lie there. 

[99] 



THE SHOULDER 
Mechanism of the Armpit, front view: 

1 Biceps. 

2 Triceps. 

3 Latissimus dorsi. 

4 Teres major. 

5 Deltoid. 



Latissimus Dorsi : From spine, sixth dorsal to sac- 
rum and iliac crest; passes inside o£ lumierus 
to fasten to front side near head. 

Action: Draws arm backward and inward. 

Teres Major : From lower corner of scapula to 
front of humerus. 

Action: Draws humerus outward and rotates back- 
wards. 



[ IOC] 



TJiE ARM 
Wedging and Intkrlockin(; of the Masses 

OF THE Arm AXD SlIOl'LDER 

(See Classes, i)ag'e ij/) 



102 



THE SHOULDER 
]\Ifciianism of the Shoulder, back view: 

1 Deltoid. 

2 Triceps. 

3 Teres minor. 

4 Teres major. 



Deltoid : Erom clavicle, acromion and ridge of scap- 
ula to outside of humerus. 

Action: Elevates, draws forward or backward, 
humerus. 

Triceps : Outer head, back of humerus above mus- 
culo-spiral groove. Inner head, back of humerus 
below musculo-spiral groove. Middle or long 
head, shoulder blade below socket to olecranon 
process of ulna. 

Action: Extends forearm. 

Teres Minor: Erom scapula to inner tubercle of 
humerus. 

Action: Draws humerus outward and rotates back- 
ward. 

Teres Major: Erom lower corner of scapula to 
front of humerus. 

Action: Draws humerus outward and rotates back- 
wards. 

[I04] 



The Neck 

I-'roiu the sloping platform of the shoulders the 
neck rises, a cylindrical column, curving slightly 
forward even when the head is thrown well back. 

It is canopied in front by the chin. It is buttressed 
on the sides by the trapezius (table) muscle. The 
table shajjc of this muscle appears only from the 
back, a diamond with lower ajjex well down the 
l)ack. Its lateral corners arise from the shoulder 
girdle opp(xsite the deltoid. Rising- diagonally up- 
ward it braces the back of the head. 

The strength of the neck is therefore at the back, 
which is somewhat Hat and overhung by the base of 
the skull. 

From bony i)rominences back of the ears two 
muscles ( sterno-mastoid ), aptly called the bonnet- 
string muscles, descend to almost meet at the root 
of the neck, forming a triangle whose base is the 
canoi)y of the chin. 

In this triangle below is the thyroid gland, larger 
in women: and above it the angular cartilage of the 
larynx, or Adam's apple, larger in men. 

Crossing its upper corners outward and down- 
ward is a thready skin muscle ( platysma myoides) 
which lifts the skin into high folds and draws down 
the corners of the mouth. It carries the imagination 
back to the time in evolution when bared teeth were 
important weapons of defense. 



[ io6 




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THE NECK 
Muscles of the Neck: 

1 Sterno-cleido-mastoid. 

2 Levator of the scapula. 

3 Trapezius. 



Sterno-cleido-nuistoideus: From top of sternum and 
sternal end of clavicle to mastoid process (back 
of ear). 

Action: Together, i)ull head forward; separately, 
rotates to opposite side, depresses head. 

Levator of the Scapula: From upper cervical verte- 

l)r;e to uj^per angle of shoulder blade. 
.■^Icfioii: liaises angle of shoulder blade. 

Trapezius : From occijjital bone, nape ligament and 
sjiine as far as twelfth dorsal, to clavicle, 
acromion and ridge of shoulder blade. 

Action: Extends head, elevates shoulder and ro- 
tates shoulder blade. 



[ 108 






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THE NECK 
Tongue-Box K axd Larynx 

1 Hyoid hone. 

2 Thyroid cartilage. 

3 Thyroid gland muscles. 

4 Digastric (has two portions). 

5 Stylo-hyoid. 
() Sterne )-hyoid. 

7 Onio-hyoid. 

8 Stcrno-cleido-mastoid. 

9 Trapezius. 

MovK.MK.x IS OF THE Xkck 

Jn the neck are seven vertehrae, each moving a 
little. When the neck is turned to one side, that 
side of each vertehra moves back as far as the per- 
pendicular and then the opposite sides move for- 
ward, lengthening the neck as they do so. This 
motion is much freer at the second joint from the 
skuil, which turns on a jiivot. The joint of the skull 
itself moves only in nodding, in which the rest of 
the neck may be quite stationary. 



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THE NECK 
Muscles of Neck 

Platysma Myoides: A sheathing- from chest and 
shoulder to masseter and corner of mouth. 

Action: Wrinkles skin of neck, draws down corner 
of mouth. 

Digastric ( doul)le-bellied muscle): Anterior belly, 
from ma.xilla, behind chin ; posterior belly, from 
mastoid process ; fastened by loop to hyoid bone. 

Action: Raises hyoid and tongue. 

Alylo-hyoid: Forms floor of mouth and canopy of 

chin in front. 
Stylo-hyoid : From hyoid t(i styloid process. 
Action: Draws back hyoid and tongue. 

Sterno-hyoid : From sternum to hyoid bone. 
Action: Depresses hyoid and .\dam's apple. 

Omo-hyoid: From hyoid bone to shoulder, upper 

border of scapula. 
Action: Draws hvoid down and to one side. 



[112] 







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The Head 

For so long- a time has the oval been used as the 
basis for the constrvtction of the human head and 
face that the use of the block or cube seems quite 
revolutionary. 

Yet for many reasons the cube seems preferable. 
The oval is too indefinite, and offers no points for 
comparison, no basis for measin-ement. The eye 
does not fix on any point in a curved line. 

On the ground plan of a square, however, any 
form may be built. The block moreover carries witli 
it from any angle its ])erspective and its foreshort- 
ening, and it carries with itself the sense of mass. 

Especially does it carry with itself the important 
element of the bilateral symmetry of the head — 
a symmetry that is present indeed in all living 
things. A vertical line in the centre divides the head 
or the trunk into parts equal, opposite, and comple- 
mental. The right eye is the counterpart of the left : 
the two halves of the nose are symmetrical ; the 
limbs, except for changes of position, are exact 
though reversed duplicates of each other. 

How to construct such a block? 

Camper, Professor Bell, and others have studied 
innumerable human skulls trying to discover some 
constant measurement by which to classify them as 
ancient or modern or according to race. They finally 
fixed u]ion two lines with the angle between them. 
The first passes from the base of the nose to the 
roof of the ear canal; the second passes from the 
upper incisor teeth to the prominent part of the 
forehead. 

The angle between these lines is practically con- 

[ii4l 



stant for a given race or a given age of evolution. 
Individual variations occur, but they are less than 
the standard. 

This angle is less in the older and less evolved 
races, and the vertical line approaches nearer the 
perpendicular in the newer races, especially the 
Caucasian. In the classical Greek head it even passes 
the perpendicular, although no actual Greek skulls 
in which this is the case have ever been discovered. 

This angle, in the Caucasian races, is about eighty 
degrees. It is not easy to construct a block on such 
an angle, and it is very desirable to have a right 
angle. By dropping the horizontal line at its rear 
end from the roof of the ear canal to the tip of the 
ear lobe, and by drawing the vertical line from the 
base of the nose where it joins the upper lip to the 
bridge of the nose, where it joins the glal)ella, we 
obtain such a right angle. 

If on these straight lines a cage be built, bounding 
the head and face, it will be found that the front and 
back are oblong and the sides are square. 

The top of the cage should be level with the top 
of the head, the bottom with the bottom of the chin ; 
the border of the cheek should fit the sides. The 
length of the oblong front will equal one and three- 
quarters times its width. The cheek bones set back 
from the front of the cage about one-third of the 
distance to the ear. 



[115] 



BLOCKED 
CONSTRUCTION OF THE HEAD 



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THE HEAD 

Emixexces. Ridges axd Depressioxs 
OF the Skull 



ii8 



THE HEAD 

The Angles of Construction 

Text Page 114 



[ 120] 




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THE HEAD 
Muscles of Mastication: 

1 Temporal. 

2 Masseter. 

3 P)Uccinator ( cheek muscle). 

4 and 5. Lesser and greater 
zygomaticus (muscles of 
expression). 



[ 122] 



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THE HEAD 

CONSTKUCTION LiNKS IN PERSPECTIVE 



Masses 

The masses of the head are the cranium, the 
skeleton of the face, and the jaw. 

Into the rounded mass of the cranium sets the, 
narrower mass of the forehead hounded hy the 
tem])les at the sides and hy tlie Ijrows helow. 

Erom the lower outer corners of the forehead the 
wedt^e of the cheek hones hei^ins; moves ovitward 
and downward until it just passes the curve of the 
cranium, then down and in, in a long- sweep, to the 
corner of the chin. 

Outside of and hehind this lower line is another 
wedge, that of the corner of the jaw, with the line 
itself for base, and a very low apex. 

The two cheek hones form together the central 
mass of the face, in the middle of which rises the 
nose. 



[ '24] 



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THE HEAD 
Planes 

The plane of the forehead slopes upward and 
backward to become the cranium; and the sides turn 
sharply to the plane of the temples. 

The plane of the face, divided by the nose, is 
broken on each side by a line from the outer corner 
of the cheek bone to the center of the upper lip, 
making two smaller planes. 

The outer of these turns to become the plane of 
the jaw, which also is again divided by a line mark- 
ing the edge of the masseter muscle, running from 
the outer border of the cheek bone to the corner of 
the jaw; and again making two secondary planes, 
one toward the cheek and one toward the ear. 

The relations of these masses and planes is to the 
moulding of a head what architectvu'e is to a house. 
They vary in proportion with each individual, and 
must be carefully compared with a mental standard. 

The He.\i) — Profile 

In ])rofile the masses of the head are the same — 
the cranium, the skeleton of the face, and the jaw. 

The front border of the temple is seen to be a long 
curve, almost parallel to the curve of the cranium. 

The to]) of the cheek bone is seen to be prolonged 
backward toward the ear as a ridge (zygoma or 
yoke) which also marks the base of the temple. It 
slopes slightly down in front. 

From cheek bone and zygoma, where they meet, 
a lesser ridge is seen rising between the temple and 
the orbit, marking the back of the orbit and the 
first part of the long line of the temple. 

Pl.-\nes 
The planes and divisions of planes of the face 
are the same as in the front view, in different per- 
spective. 

[ 126 1 



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[128: 




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The Eye 

The upper part of the eye socket or orbit is 
marked by the brow, whose bristles are so placed as 
to divert moisture and dirt outward away from the 
lid and eye. 

IJelow it on the lid are three planes, wedging into 
each other at different angles. The first is from the 
bridge of the nose to the eye. The second is from 
the brow to the cheek bone : which is again divided 
into two smaller planes, one slo])ing toward the root 
of the nose, the other directed toward and joining 
with the cheek bone. 

The lower lid is ([uite stable. It is the upper lid 
that moves. When the eye is closed, its curtain is 
drawn smooth ; when opened, its lower part follows 
the curve of the eyeball straight back, folding in 
beneath the upi)er ])art as it does so. and leaving a 
wrinkle to mark the fold. 

'i'he lower lid may be wrinkled and slightly lifted 
inward, Imlging l)elow the inner end of the lid. 

I1:e transparent cornea or "apple" of the eye is 
raised i)erceptibly, and is always curtained by the 
u])]ier lid. in part, so that it always makes a slight 
bulge in the lid. whatever the position, and whether 
open or closed. The eyeball has about half a right 
angle of movement in two planes. 

At the inner corner of the lids is a narrow pit 
(canthus), floored by a pinkish membrane, which 
projects some distance beyond the walls of the pit 
when the eye is turned far out. At the corners of 
the i)it are the openings of the tear ducts, which 
drain off the excess of lacrymal (tear) fluid. There 
is a continuous light secretion of this fluid, which 

[ >3ol 



is spread over the eyeball by the constant winking 
of the upper lid. The thin film of liquid thus kept 
there reflects light perfectly from its surface. 

The lashes, projecting from the margin of the 
lids, serve both as curtains to shade and as delicate 
feelers to protect the eye. 

The immovable masses of the forehead, nose and 
cheek bones form a strong setting for this most 
variant and expressive of the features. 

Comparisons 

In looking at any feature one naturally compares 
it with his concept of the average of such features, 
or with some mental standard or ideal. 

The variations of such features will then fall 
into classes which represent the more usual varia- 
tions thereof. 

luebrows may be level or sloping; straight or 
arched; short or long; narrow or wide, thick, scanty 
or penciled. 

Lids may be thick or thin, although the ui)])er lid 
is always thicker along its margin, and always i)ro- 
trudes if the eye i)rotrudes, and is raised over the 
cornea. 

Eye sockets may be far apart or near together; 
long or short ; bulging or shallow. 

The opening between the lids may be triangular 
or round, a looj), or a button hole. 



[ 131 



THE EYE SOCKET 
Wedges, Planes and Their Angles 



[ 132] 




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THE EYE 
Angular Opening Between the Lids 



[134] 




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THE EYE 



136 












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The Nose 

The nose is made of a series of wedges based on 
its bony structure. 

Where the bridge of the nose wedges in under 
the forehead, the two ridges of the glabella descend 
to form a wedge with apex at the bridge. 

The bony part of the nose is a very clear wedge, 
its ridge only half the length of the nose, higher 
as it descends ; its base somewhat longer, wider as 
it descends, making the second wedge. 

Beyond the bony part, the nose narrows and the 
ridge sinks slightly toward the Inilb, making a third 
wedge, base to base with the second. 

The bulb rises as two sheets of cartilage from the 
middle of the upper lip ( se])tum of the nose), ex- 
pands into the bulbous ti]). Hows over the sides, 
and flares out to form the al;e or wings of the 
nostrils. 

This cartilaginous ])ortion is quite movable. The 
wings are raised in laughter, dilated in heavy 
breathing, narrowed in distaste, and wings and tip 
are raised in scorn, wrinkling the skin over the nose. 

t COMP.XKISONS 

Average variations in noses divide them into 
classes. 

They may be small, large, or very large; concave 
or con\ex ; humped, Roman or straight. 

At the tips they may be elevated, horizontal, or 
depressed; flattened, tapering or twisted. 

The wings may be delicate or puffy, round or flat, 
triangular, sf[uare or almond-shaped. 

[138] 






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THE NOSE 
Cartilachs of the Nose: 

1 Upper lateral. 

2 Lower lateral. 

3 Wing. 

4 Septum. 



[ 140] 




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The Ear 

In animals, the external ear is a smooth cornu- 
co])ia of cartilage, freely movable, ending" in a point. 

In man it is practically immobile, and its muscles, 
now mere elastic bands, serve only to draw it into 
wrinkles. These vary widely, but there are certain 
(k'linite forms: an outer rim (helix) bearing' the 
remains of the tip; an inner elevation (anti-helix), 
in front of which is the hollow of the ear (concha) 
witli the opening of the canal, overhung in front 
by a flap (tragus) and behind and below by a 
smaller one (anti-tragus). To the whole is ap- 
pended a lobe. 

The ear is vertically in line with the back of the 
jaw, and lies horizontally between the lines of the 
brow and the base of the nose. 

In it three planes are to be found, divided by lines 
radiating from the canal, up and back and down and 
back. The first line marks a depressed angle between 
its ])lanes, the second a raised angle. 

Average variations in ears present the following 
classes: large, medium or small; round, oval or 
triangular. The remains of the point of the ear 
mav be marked or absent. 



C.ARTIL.'Xr.E OF THE E.\R : 

1 Helix. 

2 Anti-helix. 

3 Tragus. 

4 Anti-tragus 

[ 142] 



The Mouth 

•*• 

The shape of the mouth and lips is controlled by 
the shape of the jaw. The more curved the jaw in 
front the more curved the lips ; the more flat it is, 
the straighter the lij^s. A much bowed mouth does 
not occur on a jaw bone that is flat in front, nor a 
straig'ht slit of a mouth on a curved set of upper 
teeth. 

The curtainous portion of the mouth ( from nose 
to margin of red lip) ])resents a central groove with 
pillars on either side, blending into two broad droop- 
ing wings, whose terminus is at the pillars of the 
mouth. The groove ends in a wedge entering the 
upper lip (red portion). This i)ortion is set at an 
angle with the curtaincnis ]K)rtion. 

The ui)])er and lower red lips, accurately adapted 
to each other when closed, are yet quite different 
in form; the upi)er being Hat and angular, the 
lower rounded. 

The upper red lip has a central wedge-shaped 
body, indented at the toj) by the wedge of the 
groove above, and two long slender wings disap- 
pearing under the i)illars of the mouth. 

The lower red li]) has a central groove and two 
lateral lobes. It has three surfaces, the largest de- 
pressed in the middle, at the groove, and two smaller 
ones on each side, diminishing in thickness as they 
curve outward, not so long as the upper lip. 

The base or curtainous ])ortion of the lower lip 
sets at an angle with the red portion less than that 
in the up])er lip. It slopes backward and ends at 
the cleft of the chin. It has a small linear central 



144 



ridge and two large lateral lobes, bounded by the 
pillars of the mouth. 

The oval cavity of the mouth is surrounded by a 
circular muscle (orbicularis oris) whose fibres, 
overlapi)ing at the corners, raise the skin into the 
folds known as the pillars of the mouth. 

Its outer margin is usually marked by a crease 
in the skiii running from the wing-s of the nose out 
and down to varying distances, paralleling the 
pillars. Its lower end may blend into the cleft of 
the chin. From this muscle radiate various facial 
muscles of expression. 

Average variations in lips ])rcsent the following 
com])arisons : thick or thin; ])rominent. jirotruding 
or receding; and each may be compared with the 
other in these respects; straight, curved or bowed, 
rosebud, pouting or compressed. 



The Chin 

r.clow the cleft of the chin, the chin itself ])ro- 
trudes. Its breadth at the base is marked by two 
lines which, prolonged, would meet at the sei)tum of 
the nose, making a triangle that wedges upward 
into the base of the lower lip. It is bordered on each 
side by two planes which reach to the angle of 
the jaw. 

Variations in chins present the following com- 
])arisons; high or low; pointed or ball; Hat. fur- 
rowed or dimpled ; elongated, double, etc. 

[145] 



THE MOUTH 
Details of Mouth and Lips 



[146] 



The Trunk front view 



Anatomy 

The uijper part of the hody is Ijuilt around a hony 
cage caHed the thorax, conical in shape, and flat- 
tened in front. The walls of this cage are the rihs, 
twelve on each side, fastening to the spine behind 
and to the sternum or breast bone in front. 'J'he 
upper ribs are quite short and make a small circle: 
they grow longer until the seventh, which is the 
longest and the last to fasten to the breast bone. 
The next three grow shorter and shorter, and reach 
the sternum only through a long costal cartilage. 
which with the projecting end of the sternum ( ensi- 
form cartilage) form the abdominal arch. The last 
two ribs are (|uite short and are free at their front 
ends. The first seven are called true ribs, the next 
three false, and the last two floating- ribs. 

C()I-I..\K I'OXE 

To the breast bone at the top of this cone the 
collar bones are attached, lifting the whole mass 
away from the cone and making it a flat surface, 
wedging downward. The inner ends of the S-shaped 
l)one are curved around the apex of the cone, but the 
outer ends move forward again, bringing the mass 
of the shoulders with them to form the flat front 
siuTace. 

Mrscr.ES 

Thus, without the shoulders, the cage of the chest 
is a cone with the apex upward. Under the muscles 
this form may easily be seen. 

[148] 



With the shoulders, it is a wedge with the apex 
downward. The profile of the sides forms a wide 
wedge, buttressed by a mass of lateral muscles over 
the iliac crest. 

The front surface, formed mainly by the pectoral 
and rectus abdominis muscles, forms a much more 
slender wedge. Its vipper third bevels more sharply 
in, as far as the lower border of the breast muscle, 
I)aralleling the edge of that muscle, bounded l)y a 
line across the bottom of the breast muscle, just be- 
low the nijiple, through the epig'astric pit. Its lower 
two-thirds bevels more shar])ly dowm, following the 
edge of the rectus muscle; its lines almost meet at 
the sym])hysis ]nibis below. 

A vertical central groove divides the symmetrical 
halves of the front, running its full length. It be- 
gins in the pit of the neck, between the collar bones. 
Over the breast it marks the breast bone, and is 
deepened by the bulge of the ])ectoral nuiscles on 
either side. At the end of this, its u])per third, is a pit 
(epigastric pit) marking the divergence of the ribs. 

At the end of its middle third is another pit, the 
uml)ilicus or navel. .\t the end of its lower third is 
the mound of the symphysis. This line is useful for 
placing the masses of the chest, the epigastrium 
(over the stomach) and the abdomen. 

IM.\SSKS 

The masses of the torse are the chest, the abdo- 
men or pelvis, and between them the epigastrium ; 
the first two comparatively stable, the middle one 
(|uite movable. 

A straight line marking the collar bones defines 
the top of the first mass ; and paralleling it, a line 
through the base of the breast muscles and pit of 
the epigastrium forms its base. 



149 



Although the shoulders are freely movable, 
changing- the lines of the first mass, and bulging 
the pectoral muscles, yet the mass itself changes 
little except the slight change in respiration. Even 
in respiration the upper portion, as far as the level 
of the epigastric pit, changes little; the lower ribs 
perform most of the respiratory movement. 

Centering on this pit is the abdominal arch, made 
of the cartilages of the false ribs. At its centre, 
the end of the breast bone (ensiform cartilage) 
hangs pendent : on either side the arch descends 
diagonally, variously curved, separating thorax 
from abdomen. 

Below this arch is the al)domen, the most mov- 
able part of the mobile portion. It is bounded l^elow 
by a line passing approximately through the an- 
terior points of the iliac crests. Its profile shows 
the lines of the cone of the thorax diverging 
downward, the lines of the wedge of the chest 
and shoulders converging downward, and the but- 
tressing of the lateral muscles. 

In the l)ending or turning of the body the central 
line of this portion bends always to the convex side, 
always paralleled by the borders of the rectus 
muscle. 

By this movement the straight wedge of the front 
is broken. It becomes not a bent wedge, but two 
wedges; one the uj^per half of the original wedge, 
prolonged but not completed downward; the other 
the lower half, i)rolonged upw-ard to meet the one 
above. 

ATore unchanging than cither of the above is the 
mass of the abdomen. The central groove is here 
shallow and may lose itself below. The long wedge 
ends in the symphysis pubis. 

[130I 




I. /J 



THE TRUNK 

Mrsci.KS OK Till-: TurxK. front view: 

1 Pcctoralis major. 

2 IX'ltoid. 

3 l-Jectus abdominis. 

4 Scrratus ma_s,'nns. 

5 I'Lxteriial o1)li([ne. 

Pcctoralis major, page 154 
Deltoid, page 104. 



Rectus Abdominis: From symi)hysis pul)is to car- 
tilages of ribs, from fifth to seventh. 
Action: Flexes thorax. 

Serratus ]\lagnus: l-'rom eight upper ril)s to scap- 
ula — spinal edge, under surface. 
miction: Draws shoulder blade forward, raises ribs. 

External Obli([ue: From eight lower ribs to iliac 

crest and ligament to pubis. 
Action: P'lexes thorax. 



[ 152 



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SKELETON OF THE TRUNK 
Muscles Coverixg Upper Portion, front view: 

1 Pectoralis minor. 

2 Pectoralis major. 



Pectoralis ?\Iinor: From tliird, fourth and tiftli ribs 

to coracoid process. 
Action: I^epresses point of slioulder. 

Pectoralis ^Major: From inner half of clavicle, ster- 
num, costal cartilag'es as far as sixth and 
seventh ribs to humerus. 

.let ion: Draws arm downward and forward. 



[ >54 



, THE TRUNK 

Trunk, front view 
Armpit and Siioi'lder 



156] 



The Torse 

Profile 

The erect torse presents in profile the long curve 
of the front, broken by depressions at the border 
of the breast muscle and at the umbilicus or navel 
into three lesser curves, almost equal in length. The 
back presents the sharp anterior curve of the waist, 
opposite the umbilicus, bending into the long pos- 
terior curve of the chest, and the shorter curve of 
the buttocks. The former, that of the chest, is broken 
by the almost vertical shoulder blade and the slight 
bulge of the latissimus below it. 

In profile the torse presents three masses: that of 
the chest, that of the waist, and that of the pelvis 
and abdomen. The first and last are comjiaratively 
unchanging. 

Above, the mass of the chest is bounded by the 
line of the collar bones ; below, by a line following 
the cartilages of the ribs, being perpendicular to the 
long diameter of the chest. 

This mass is widened by the expansion of the 
chest in breathing, and the shoulder moves freely 
over it, carrying the shoulder blade, collar bone, 
and muscles. 

It is marked by the ridge of costal cartilages that 
forms its border, sloping up and forward, and by 
the ribs themselves, sloping down and forward, and 
by the "dig^itations" ( finger marks) of the serratus 
magnus (big saw-toothed) muscle, little triangles 
in a row from the corner of the breast muscle, 
paralleling the cartilages of the ribs, disappearing 
under the latissimus. 

['581 



Below, the mass of the pelvis and abdomen slopes 
up and forward. It is marked by the iliac crest and 
hip, described later. In front it may be flattened by 
contraction of the abdominal muscles. Over its sur- 
face the hip moves freely, changing the tilt of the 
pelvis. 

Between these the central mass contains the waist 
vertebrae, and is very changeable. Practically all of 
the movement of flexion and extension for the 
whole spine occurs here, and much of the side- 
bending. 

This mass is marked by a buttress of lateral 
muscles, slightly overhang-ing the pelvic brim and 
bearing inward against the side above. It changes 
greatly in different positions of the trunk. 

Tgr.sp: — B.\CK \'i?:w 

The back presents numerous depressions and 
l)rominences. This is due not only to its bony struc- 
ture, but to the crossing and recrossing of a number 
of thin layers of muscles. It should be borne in mind 
that the superficial or outside layers manifest them- 
selves only when in action. For this reason, under 
all changes of position, the spine, the shoulder-blade 
with its acromion process, and the crest of the ilium, 
must l)e regarded as the landmarks of this region. 

The spine is composed of twenty-four vertebrae. 
It extends the full length of the back, and its course 
is marked by a furrow. The vertebrae are known as 
the cervical, dorsal and lumbar. The cervical ver- 
tebras are seven in number, and the seventh is the 
most prominent in the whole of the spine. It is 
known as vertebra prominens. In the dorsal region 
the furrow is not so deep as below. Here there are 
twelve vertebrae. When the body is bent forward, 

[159] 



the processes of the vertebrae in this section are 
plainly indicated. 

The spinal fiu-row becomes deeper as it reaches 
the lumbar vertebrae, where it is marked by dimples 
and depressions. It widens out, too, in this part of 
the body, and as it passes over the surface of the 
sacrum to the coccyx it becomes flattened. The 
average length of the spine is about two feet three 
inches. 

Tlie outer corner of the shoulder girdle is the 
acromion i)rocess, which is the high outer extremity 
of a ridge rising from the shoulder blade. The 
shoulder blade or scapula (spade) is a flat plaque 
of bone fitting snugly against the cage of the thorax, 
having a long inner vertical edge, parallel to the 
si^ine: a shar]) lower ])oint : a long outer edge ixiint- 
ing to the arm pit ; and a short upper edge parallel 
with the slope of the shoulder. The ridge, or spine 
of the sca])ula, starts at the spinal edge, about a 
third of the way down, in a triangular thickening, 
and rises until it passes high over the outer upi)er 
corner, where the shoulder joint ties, then turns 
forward to join with the collar bone at the acromion. 
The prominent ])ortions are this ridge and the spinal 
edge and the lower corner. Hie upper outer corner 
is thickened to form the socket for the head of the 
humerus, forming the shoulder joint pro])er. 

AIOVF.MKXTS 

.Mo\ement of tlexion and extension occurs almost 
entirely in the waist or lumbar vertebrae. Movement 
of side-bending occurs throughout the whole length. 
Movement of rotation occurs in the lumbar verte- 
l)r;e when the s]Mne is erect, in the middle vertebrae 
when it is half flexed, in the upper vertebrae when 

I 160I 



the spine is fully bent. In the lumbar vertebrje, the 
axis of this rotation is behind the spine; in the mid- 
dle vertebrae it is neutral; in the upper dorsals it is 
in front of the spine. 

Each vertebra moves a little, and the whole move- 
ment is the aggregate of the many little movements. 

The shoulder blade slides against the surface of 
the cage of the thorax, in any direction, and may be 
lifted from it so that its point or its spinal edge be- 
come prominent under the skin. It produces easily 
fifty per cent, of the whole movement of the 
shoulder. 

Masses .\nd Markings 

From the rear the mass of the torse presents a 
great wedge, with apex downward, marked by a 
comi)lex of lesser wedges and diamonds, and the 
shoulder blades. 

The profile of the sides presents a wide incom- 
plete wedge, whose lines if jirolonged would form 
an apex well below the Ijuttocks. The surface projier 
of the back presents a great wedge, with base at the 
corners of the shoulders, with apex driven between 
the buttocks, buttressed on the sides by the lateral 
masses of waist muscle. With the addition of the 
neck, this becomes a diamond with a very blunt top. 

From end to end vertically runs the dividing line 
of the spine; when bent, a series of knobs (tips of 
vertebral spines ) ; when erect a groove except at 
the root of the neck, the spine of the seventh cervi- 
cal vertebra. This serves as a sort of ridge pole for 
muscular tendons for neck and shoulders; and 
around it therefore is a flat unbroken fascia with- 
out muscular fibres, forming a lesser diamond nest- 
ling below the upper apex. 



i6i ] 



THE TRUNK 
The Trunk, side view: 

1 Latissinius dorsi. 

2 External oblique. 



Latissinius dorsi : T roni spine, sixth dorsal, to 
sacrum and iliac crest; ]iassesinsideof humerus 
to fasten tt) front side near head. 

miction: Draws arm backward and inward. 

External Oblique: I-'rom eight lower ribs to iliac 

crest and ligament to pubis. 
miction: Flexes thorax. 



[ 162 













\ 



THE TRUNK 
Musci.es of the Trunk, back view: 

1 Trapezius. 

2 Deltoid. 

3 Latissimus dorsi. 



Trapezius: Fr(>ni occii)ital bone, nape Hgament and 
spine as far as twelfth dorsal, to clavicle, acro- 
mion and ride,"e of shoulder blade. 

Action: E.xtends head, elevates shoulder and ro- 
tates shoulder blade. 

Deltoid, page 104. 
Latissimus dorsi, page 162. 



[164] 







//jTrf/, 













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THE TRUNK 

Trlxk, back view 

Anatomy. 

The trapezius is a diamond-shaped muscle; with 
upper apex at the base of the skull, lower apex well 
below the shoulder blades, and corners at the shoul- 
der girdle o])])osite the deltoid, as though it were a 
continuation of that muscle. 

From the sacrum the muscles diverge upward, 
while the lower ribs and lower corner of the 
shoulder blade diverge dcnvnward, making lesser 
diamonds of various definiteness of outline. 

The ridge of the shoulder blade is always con- 
si)icuous, pointing diagonally toward the corner of 
the shoulder. It sets at a fixed angle with the s])inal 
edge (more than a right angle) and at a right angle 
with the lower turned-out corner. 

In relaxation, both ridge and blade are ridges un- 
der the skin, and are converted into grooves by the 
muscles bulging in contraction. 

Of these muscles, those on either side of the ridge 
are easily recognizal)le — the deltoid, below and out- 
side, and tra])ezius, above and inside, but the tra- 
pezius also spreads from the inner end of the ridge 
to well down the spine. Under this. heljMng to form 
the bulge, are the rhomboidei, extending from the 
blade diagonally ui)ward to the s])ine, and the levator 
anguli scapula', from its ujjper corner almost verti- 
cally to the top of the neck. 



[ !()() 



V 




THE TRUNK 
Trunk, l)ack view 

MaSSKS AM) Til KIR Mo\E?irEXTS: 
TiLTlXC; AM) TwiSTIXO 



[ i68 ] 



A\\ 




THE TRUNK 
The Cage of the Torse 



[ 170. 



THE TRUNK 
Wedging of the Cage into the Hips 



I 172] 



f r 










The Pelvis 



Anatomy 

Three Ijones make the ])elvis: two innominate 
(without a name) bones and one sacrum (sacrificial 
bone). 

The sacrum is a wedge about the size of the hand 
but more perfectly shaped, bent like a half-l)ent 
hand, and carrying a very small tip about as big- as 
the last joint of the thumb (coccyx). It forms the 
central ])iece in the back, curving first back and 
down and then down and in. 

The two innominate bones are formed like two 
propellers, with triangular blades twisted in oppo- 
site directions. The rear corners of the top blades 
meet the sacrum in the back, and the front corners 
of the lower blades meet in front to form the sym- 
physis ])ubis. The hip socket itself forms the central 
point for the shaft. The two blades stand at right 
angles to each other. 

The upper blade is called the ilium, the lower is 
called the pubis in front and the ischium behind, 
with an ()])ening between. The only su]ierficial parts 
are the top of the up])cr blade (iliac crest) and the 
front tip of the lower ( symphysis pubis). 

A[asse.s and Markings 

The size of the j^elvis is due to its position as the 
mechanical axis of the body; it is the fulcnmi for 
the muscles of the trunk and legs, and is large in 
proportion. Its mass inclines a little forward, and is 
somewhat square as compared with the trunk above. 

At the sides the ridge is called the iliac crest. It 

[174] 



is the fulcrum for the lateral muscles and flares out 
widely for that ])urpose ; rather more widely in front 
than behind. 

Above the rim is a roll of muscle belonging to the 
abdominal wall; immediately below it a groove or 
depression, made by the sag of the hip muscles, ob- 
literated when these are contracted in action. 



The Hip 



So great are the changes in surface form of the 
muscles in different positions of the hip that the 
iliac crest remains as the one stable landmark. It is 
a curve, but being beveled l)ackward. it presents to 
the side view two lines and almost an angle between 
them at the top. 

The posterior line is marked by two dimples where 
it joins the sacnun, and the line continues down- 
ward into the fold of the buttocks. From this whole 
line the gluteus maximus nuisclc passes down and 
forward, to just below the head of the thigh bone, 
making the mass of the l)uttocks and hip. 

Just in front of this, from the top of the crest, 
descends the gluteus medius muscle, forming a 
wedge whose apex is at the head of the thigh bone. 
Between these two muscles is the dimple of the thigh. 

Only i)art of the medius is superficial : its front 
portion is overlaid l)y the tensor fasci;e femoris 
muscle, which rises from the edge of the front line 
of the crest and descends to form with the gluteus 
maximus the wedge filled in by the medius. The 
two fasten to the dense plate of fascia that guards 
the outside of the thigh ( ilio-tibial band). This 

M75] 



muscle is always prominent and changes its appear- 
ance greatly in different positions of the hip, form- 
ing a U-shaped wrinkle when the thigh is complete- 
ly^flexed. 

On the front end of the crest is a small knob, 
from which descends the sartorius (tailor's) mus- 
cle, longest in the body. It forms a graceful curve 
as it lies in the groove of the inner side of the thigh, 
passing to under the knee. 

From just below the knob, overlaid therefore by 
the sartorius, descends the rectus femoris muscle, 
straight to the knee cap. 

From the knob, the line continues down and in 
to the s\mphysis, marking the boundary between 
abdomen and thigh. 



TiiK Pi-:i.\is .\xn Hii' 

1 Tensor vagina; femoris. 

2 Sartorius. 

3 Rectus femoris. 

4 Gluteus medius. 

5 Gluteus maximus. 

Tensor I 

Sartorius. iPage 182 

Rectus femoris ' 

Gluteus IMedius: From ilium, outer surface, to 

femur, greater trochanter. 
miction: Abducts and rotates inward thigh. 

Gluteus maximus : From crest of ilium, rear por- 
tion, sacrum and coccyx to femur. 
Action: Extends, rotates and turns out thigh. 

[176] 




yy 



A 



i !' // 



The Lower Limbs 

Anatomy 

The lower limb is divided into three parts — the 
thigh, the leg-, and the foot. These parts correspond 
to the arm, the forearm, and the hand of the upper 
limb. 

The thigh extends from the pelvis to the knee, 
and the leg from the knee to the foot. 

The longest and strongest bone of the body is the 
femur (thigh bone). It is joined to the bones of the 
pelvis at the hip socket by a long neck, which carries 
the shaft itself out beyond the widest part of the 
crest. From there the femora (thigh bones) con- 
verge as they ai)proach the knees, bringing the knee 
under the hip socket. At the knee, the femur rests 
on the tibia (shin bone), the main bone of the leg, 
and makes a hinge joint. The tibia descends to form 
the inner ankle. Beside it, not reaching quite to the 
knee, is the fibula, the second bone of the leg, which 
descends to form the outer ankle. It is located on 
the outside, and is attached to the tibia at the top 
and bottom. These two bones are almost parallel. 
Above the juncture of the femur and tibia lies the 
])atella (knee ca])). This is a small l)one almost tri- 
angular in shape. It is flat on its under side, and 
convex on the surface. 

The great trochanter of the femur is the upper 
tip of the shaft which reaches up slightly beyond 
where the neck joins. 

The lower portion of the femur widens to form 
two great hinge processes, known as tuberosities. 
They are on the outer and inner sides, and they are 
both visible. 

f 1/8 1 



The Thigh 

Anatomy 

From the head of the femur (trochanter) to the 
outside of the knee runs a band of tendon called the 
ilio-tibial band. It makes a straight line from the 
head of the thigh bone to the outside of the knee. 

The rectus femoris muscle makes a slightly 
bulging straight line from just ];el<>\v the iliac crest 
to the knee cap. 

On either side of the latter is a twin mass of 
muscles. That of the cuttside (vastus extcrnus) 
makes one mass with it, and slightly overhangs the 
ilio-tibial band outside. That of the inside (vastus 
internus) bulges only in the lower third of the 
thigh, and overhangs the knee on the inside. 

Behind and inside of this is the groove of the 
thigh occupied by the sartorius muscle, passing 
from the ilium above to the back of the knee below. 

Behind the groove is the hea\y mass of the ad- 
ductors, reaching two-thirds of the way down the 
thigh. 

Behind groove and adductors, around the back of 
the thigh and to the ilio-tibial band outside, is the 
mass of the ham-string muscles, whose tendons are 
found on either side of the knee at the back. It is a 
dual mass of muscle, dividing above the diamond- 
shaped popliteal space at the back of the knee, whose 
lower corner is formed by the gastrocnemius mus- 
cle, similarly divided. 

M.\ss 

The mass of the thigh is inclined inward from 
hip to knee, and is slightly beveled toward the knee 
from front, back and outside. 

[ 179] 



LOWER LIMBS 

Bones of the Lower Limb: 

Hip — Pelvis. 

Thigh — Femur. 

Leg- — Til)ia and Fibula (outside). 

Muscles of the Lower Limb, front view: 

1 Tensor of the fascia lata. 

2 Sartorius. 

3 Rectus femoris. 

4 A'astus externus. 

5 \'astus internus. 
C) Tibialis anticus. 

7 Peroneus longus. 

8 Extensor longus digitorum. 

Tensor A'agin^e Femoris (tensor fasciae femoris) : 
From crest of ilium, front end, to fascia lata, 
or ilio-tibial band. 

Action: Tenses fascia and rotates inward thigh. 

Sartorius: From spine to ilium in front to tibia 

inside. 
Action: Flexes, abducts and rotates inward thigh. 

Rectus Femoris: From anterior inferior spine of 

ilium to common tendon of patella. 
Action: Extends leg. 

Vastus Extenms : From outer side of femur to 

common tendon of patella. 
Action: Extends and rotates outward leg. 

Vastus Internus : From inner side of femur to 

common tendon of patella. 
Action: Extends and rotates inward leg. 

[ 182 ] 



I 14 



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LOWER LIMBS 
Muscles of the Lower Limb, back view 

1 Gluteus medius. 

2 Gluteus niaximus. 

3 Semi-tendinosus. 

4 Semi-membranosus. 

5 I'jiceps femoris. 

6 Gastrocnemius. 

7 Soleus. 



Gluteus luedius | 
Gluteus maximus j 



Page 176 



Semi-tendinosus : From ischial tuberosity to tibia. 
Action: Flexes knee and rotates inward leg". 

Semi-memliranosus: I<"roni ischial tuberositytotibia. 
Action: Flexes knee and rotates leg inward. 

Biceps Femoris: Long head from ischial tuberosity; 

short head from femur, to head of fil^ula. 
Action: Flexes knee and rotates thigh outward. 



Gastrocnemius, page 188. 
Soleus, page 192. 



184 




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LOWER LIMBS 

Knee Joint, back view 

Ham-Strings, Gastrocnemius and Popliteal 

Space 



[i86] 



LOWER LIMBS 

Muscles of the Lower Limb, outer view : 

1 Gluteus maxinius. 

2 Gluteus mcdius. 

3 Biceps femoris. 

4 Vastus externus. 

5 Gastrocnemius. 

6 Peroneus loiigus. 

7 Tibialis anticus. 



Below the Knee 

Gastrocnemius: From tuberosities of femur to 

tendon of Achilles. 
Action: Extends foot, raises body in walking. 

Peroneus Longus : From head and upijcr ])art of 
fibula passes beneath foot from outside, to base 
of big toe. 

Action: Extends ankle and raises outer side of foot. 

Tibialis Anticus: From up])er and outer two-thirds 

of tibia to inner side of foot. 
Action: Flexes ankle and raises inner side of foot. 



1 88 



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LOWER LIMBS 
MrscLES OF THE LowER LiMB, inner view 

1 Rectus femoris. 

2 Vastus internus. 

3 Sartorius. 

4 Gracilis. 

5 Senii-tendinosus. 

6 Semi-menil)rannsus. 

7 Gastrocnemius. 

8 Soleus. 



Bki.ow iMiE Knee 

Soleus: I'^roni upper i)art of fibula and back of 

tibia to tendon of Achilles. 
^■Ictioii: l'".xtends foot and lifts body in walking'. 

Mxtensor Connnunis Digitorum (extensor longus 
dig'itoruni ])edis) : From til)ia and front of 
fibula to second and third ]ihalang'es of toes. 

.Icfioii: l^xtends toes. Diagram, page 183. 



UJ2 



The Knee 

The knee must be thought of as a square with 
sides beveled f orward, shghtly hollowed at the back, 
and carrying- in front the knee cap; like the stopper 
of an ink well. 

A powerful ligament connects the cap with the 
high ridge of the shin bone below, the two sliding 
together on the end of the thigh bone, which is 
therefore exposed in ilexion. The cap is always at 
the apex of the angle made by thigh and leg. 

From the knee cap at the top rise the three 
muscles already described, the rectus by a tendon 
narrowing upward : the \ astus externus by a tendon 
angling slightly out; the vastus internus bulging 
prominently from the corner of the cap. 

When the knee is straight, its bursa, or water 
mattress, forms a bulge on either side in the corner 
between the cap and its tendon, exactly opposite the 
joint itself; the knee cap being always above the 
level of the joint. 

The back, when bent, is hollowed out by the ham- 
string tendons on either side; when straight, the 
bone becomes prominent between them, making, 
with these tendons, three knobs. 

The inside of the knee is larger; the knee as a 
whole is bent convex toward its fellow. The hip 
socket, the knee and the ankle are all in line: but 
the sJiaff of the thigh bone is carried some distance 
out by a long neck, so that the thigh is set at an 
angle with the leg. 



[ 194 



THE KNEE 
Knee, outer view 



196 I 







/y' 







THE KNEE 
Knee: 

1 Pad or sack. 

2 Common tendon. 

3 Patella or knee-pan. 

4 Ligament of the patella. 



[198] 



THE KNEE 

Knee, inner view 



[ 200 ] 






\t 



^-. ^-\ 









Si'' 








The Foot 



As the little finger side is the heel side of the 
hand, so the outside of the foot is the heel side. 
It is flat upon the ground, continuous with the heel; 
it is lower than the inside — even the outer ankle 
bone is lower — and it is shorter. 

The inside, as though raised by the greater power 
of the great toe and the tendons of all the toes, is 
higher. To the front of the ankle is the knolj that 
corresponds with the base of the thumb. Opposite 
it, on the outside, is a similar knol) corresponding 
with the l)ase of the little finger. 

In the foot this symmetry adajited to the func- 
tion of weight-bearing, has developed into a 
wonderful series of arches. The five arches of 
the foot converge on the heel; the toes being flying 
buttresses to them. The balls of the foot form a 
transverse arch. The inner arches of the foot are 
successively higher, forming half of a transverse 
arch whose completion is in the opjjosite foot. Open- 
ing gradually toward the ankle, this arching move- 
ment finally culminates in the two columns of the 
leg and the arch between; wherefore the leg is 
placed somewhat to the inside of the central line 
of the foot. 

IMOVKMENT.S 

In all positions, the foot tends to keep itself flat 
•with the ground; the arches of the foot changing 
accordingly. In action, the foot comes almost into 
straight line with the leg, but when settling upon the 
ground, the outer or heel side strikes first and the 
whole foot settles toward the inside. 

[ 202 ] 



THE FOOT 

The Foot, outer view 

Interlockixc. of the Ankle with the Foot 



[204 



THE FOOT 
The Foot, inner view 



206 



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f i 







£.3 



III' 



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\ K K - sX ■>:^'/V' 



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TOES 
Their Pads and Wedging 



208 



li-^-*'^- 




ORIGIN 


AND COMMON MEANING 




OF 


ANATOMICAL WORDS 


Mcxor 




Jiender 


Extensor 




Extender 


Aljiluctor 




Drawing away (from median line) 


Adductor 




Drawing toward (median line) 


Sui^inator 




Turning face up 


Pronator 




Turning face down 


Anterior 




In front 


Posterior 




liehind 


T -ongus 




Long 


Brevis 




l^)rief. or short 


External 




( )utside of 


Internal 




On inner side 


Rectus 




Straiglu 


\'astus 




N'ast, or large 


Mininuis 




Smallest 


Semi 




Half 


'i'ertius 




Third 


In f ra 




I'.elow 



Bones 

I'rontal In front 

Temporal "Time'' 

Parietal I'^rom paries, wall 

( )ccipital h'rom oh. over against, and caput, head; 

so hack of head 

.Vasal X'ose 

Malar From mala, clieek 

Maxillary Jaw 

Superior Ahove, upper 

Inferior Below, lower 

M a.stoid Nijjple-shaped 

Sternum ISreast hone 

Clavicle Key, collar hone 

Scapula .Spade ; shoulder hlade 

Humerus Bone of upper arm 



[210] 



L'lna 

Radius 

Carpal 

Trapezium 

Trapezoid 

Scapiioid 

Semi-lunar 

Cuneiform 

Pisiform 

Os magnum 

Metacarpals 

Phalanges 

Digit 

Os innominatum 

Sacrum 

Coccyx' 

Femur 

Patella 

'i'ihia 

Fibula 

Calcaneum 

Tarsal 

Metatarsal 

Plialan<n\s 



Cubit 

Spoke (of wheel I 

From carious, wrist 

Table 

Like a table — two si<les parallel, two not 

I loat-shaped 

1 lalf-moon 

Wedge-shaped 

Pea-sha])ed 

( ireat bone 

Beyond the wrist 

Ranks of soldiers 

Finger 

Bone without a name 

Sacred (used in oracles) 

Cuckoo ( beak of ) 

Thigh 

Little pan 

Shin 

Flute 

From calx, heel 

Instep 

Beyond the instep 

Ranks of soldiers 



Muscles 

Temporal Pertaining to temporal bone 

Masseter Cbewer, masticator 

Sterno-cleido- Attaching to sternum, clavicle and 

mastoid mastoid bones 

Thyroid Shield (and cidos, like) ; so shield-like. 

(So all words ending in -oid. ) 
Thyroid cartilage Adam's apple 
Deltoid Like Creek letter delta, triangular (e(|ui- 

lateral) 
Pectoralis Pertaining to breast 

Major Greater 

Minor Lesser 



[211] 



Rectus alxlnminis Straig:ht muscle of abdomen 

Oblique Slanting 

Serratus Saw-toothed 

Teres Round 

Biceps Two-headed 

Brachialis Pertaining to arm 

Anticus ( Adjective ) in front 

Triceps Three-headed 

Anconeus l)onke\'s foot 

Coraco-hrachialis l-'rom coracoid (beak-like) process of 

scapula to brachium, or arm 

(iluteus iJuttocks 

Maxinius (ireatest 

Medius Middle-sized 

Minimus Smallest 

Tensor Tightener, or holder 

I'ascia Band 

Lata I'road 

Rectus femoris Straight muscle of the femur 

N'astus extenuis < ireat muscle outside 

\'astus inteiniis (ireat muscle inside 

Abductor Drawing away (from meilian line) 

(iracilis Slender, graceful 

Semi-tendinosus Half tendinous 

Semi-membianosus I lalf membranous (broad, flat tendon) 

I'lantaris ( )f the sole of the foot (compare pal- 

maris of the hand ) 

( iastrocnemius b'rog's belly 

Soleus .^ole llsh. or flounder 

Achilles' tendon The tendon b_\- which Achilles' mother 
held in (li|)|)ing him into the River Styx 
to make him invulnerable 

F'eroneus I'in — anotbei^ name for hbula 

Tibialis Anticus In front of tiliia 

Pollicis I'^roin pitUc.v. tliumb or l)ig toe 

'Jdienar Palm 

Hypo-thenar L'nder (less than) the thenar 

Palmaris ( )f the i)alm 

Trapezius Table-shaped 

[ 212 I 



Latissinuis dtirsi Rroadest muscle of Ijack 

Infra-spinatus Helow the spine ( of scapula ) 

Supi"a-s])inatus Above the spine (of scajnila i 

Teres major Larger round muscle 

Teres minor Smaller round muscle 

Rhomhoideus Rhomb shaped — quadrilateral l)Ut not 
right-angled 



[ 213 1 



INDEX 

Origin, Insertion and Aftion 
of Muscles 



I-A(il' 



Anconeus 82 

liiceps — Arm ~i'2 

liiceps — I'^cnioris 1S4 

IJracliialis anticus 18 

t'oraco-bracliialis ~i'i 

Deltoid 10-1 

Digastric 11"* 

iCxtensor carpi ulnaris 8"-^ 

l'3xtensor carpi radialis longior ... 18 

I'^xten.sor communis digitorum . . S'.i 

Mxtens(jr communis digitorum |)C(lis \'*'i 

ICxtensor minimi digiti 8"i 

External oblique lt>". 

I'lexor ear]M radialis '^'i 

Mexor carpi ulnaris '••"' 

Me.xor sublimis digitorum .... 'f'i 

( iastrocneniius 188 

(iluteus maximus 11<> 

Ciluteus medius IKi 

l.atissimus dorsi Hi- 

Levator of the scapula 108 



1 N D E \—confliuiC(l 



M ylo-h}<;i(l 

( )nio-li_V()i(l . 

IV'ctoralis major 
IV'ctoralis minor 
I'eroneus long-us 
I'latysma myoides 
Pronator radii terc 

Rectus alxlominis 
Rectus t'emoris 

Sartorius 

Semi-tendinosus 

Semi-nienihranosus 

Serratus mag'nus 

Sterno-hyoid 

Stvlo-liyoid 

Soleus 

Sterno-c lei do-mast oideu 

Su])inator l()nc,^us . 

Tensor vat;in;e teniori 
Teres major 
'I'eres minor 
Tibialis anticiis 
Trai)ezius 
Tricei^s . 

A'astus externus 
\'astus internus 



11:2 

1 .VI 
154 
188 
112 



182 

1 82 
184 
184 

^y> 

112 
1 12 
11(2 
108 
14 

1 82 
104 
104 
188 
104 
104 

1 82 
182 



PRINTED IN THE SHOP OF WILLIAM EDWIN KUUGE 



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